Daily CUrrent Affairs 31.12.2021 (Feminist writer Ambai wins Sahitya Akademi award, In NFHS report card, the good, the sober, the future)

Daily CUrrent Affairs 31.12.2021 (Feminist writer Ambai wins Sahitya Akademi award, In NFHS report card, the good, the sober, the future)

  1. Feminist writer Ambai wins Sahitya Akademi award

She has been honoured for her short story collection Sivappu Kazhutthudan Oru Patchaiparavai

Tamil feminist writer Ambai, whose writings challenge the stereotyping of women, has won this year’s Sahitya Akademi award. She has been honoured for her short story collection Sivappu Kazhutthudan Oru Patchaiparavai. Ambai is the fourth woman writer from Tamil Nadu to get the award.

Another Tamil writer Mu. Murugesh bagged the Bala Sahitya Puraskar for his collection of short stories Ammavukku Magal Sonna Ulagin Mudhal Kadhai.

“Though it is a recognition of my writings, I feel embarrassed. I have won the award that eluded writers such as Sundara Ramasamy and Venkat Swaminathan. A lot of friends have played a role in getting me the award,” Ambai, whose original name is C.S. Lakshmi, told The Hindu.

Born in Coimbatore in 1944, Ambai obtained a post-graduate degree in history from Madras Christian College and a Ph.D from Jawaharlal Nehru University. She lives in Mumbai and writes for newspapers, including The Hindu, and magazines like Economic and Political Weekly.

Though her first short story collection Sirakukal Muriyum was published in 1976 and the eponymous story of the collection was written in 1967, she made her mark as a writer even in her teens. Many of her stories were published in Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan as star stories.

Writer K.N. Senthil said Ambai was one among the many Tamil writers who confined themselves to short stories and never forayed into novels. “Even though she has written articles, short stories are her art form.”

Her other story collections Veetin Moolaiyil Oru Samayalarai, Kaatil Oru Maan, Vattrum Eriyin Meenkal, Oru Karuppu Silanthiyudan Oor Iravu and Andheri Membalathil Oru Santhippu are published by Kalachuvadu. “Ambai’s arrival is important in the realm of Tamil fiction and narrative in the last 50 years. Her careful and sober writings gathered pace only in the 2000s. They represented the voice that is denied a space. She brought to the boardroom those who languished behind the screens and doors, in the kitchen. She demolished what men portrayed as the world of women,” said Mr. Senthil, who had written in detail about Ambai’s work.

He pointed out that the short stories Amma Oru Kolai Seithal and Sirakukal Muriyum continued to retain the aura even 50 years after they were written. Another story is Thanimai Ennum Iruttu.

“The loneliness the protagonist felt before marriage continues even after the marriage. As her husband fails to understand her aspirations and longings, she creates a world in the imagination,” Mr. Senthil said of the character.

Ambai, the founder-trustee and director of SPARROW (Sound and Picture Archives for Research on Women), asserted, “My characters think not only out of the box but also question the prevailing systems.” “What is to be a good woman is something defined and pre-planned. Drawing a ‘kolam’, cooking and keeping the husband in good humour defines an ideal woman, and this is questioned by my characters.”

In an interview to The Hindu, she disagreed with the idea that literature could lead to social change. “Literature can touch upon issues that a particular author feels strongly about. I don’t think it can lead directly to any change. I think writers, like many others, are not creatures who can retain their righteous anger all the time,” she had said.

While receiving the Toronto-based Tamil Literary Garden’s lifetime achievement award, she said: “Literature’s seminal concern does not lie in its depiction of ‘truth’. Rather, its interests lie in the relationship that we have with what we perceive as truth. That the nature of this ‘truth’ is constantly altering in our life is the real truth.” Poet Sukirtha Rani said it was Ambai who defined feminism, feminist politics and the concept of language on women’s body for writers like her. “She was able to express her ideas of feminism almost half-a-century ago when the circumstances were hostile, and her ideas are still relevant. I feel as if I have won the award.”

Sahitya Akademi

The Sahitya Akademi was formally inaugurated by the Government of India on 12 March 1954.

It is India’s National Academy of Letters and the central institution for literary dialogue, publication and promotion in the country and the only institution that undertakes literary activities in 24 Indian languages, including English.

Akademi gives 24 awards annually to literary works in the languages it has recognized and an equal number of awards to literary translations from and into the languages of India, both after a year-long process of scrutiny, discussion and selection.

Every year since its inception in 1954, the Sahitya Akademi Award prizes to the most outstanding books of literary merit published in any of the major Indian languages recognised by the Akademi.

The award amount, which was Rs.5,000 since inception, had been enhanced to Rs.10,000 from 1983, Rs.25,000 from 1988, Rs.40,000 from 2001, Rs.50,000 from 2003 and is now Rs.1,00,000 from 2009. The first Awards were given in 1955.

About Sahitya Akademi Yuva Puraskar

Sahitya Akademi introduced Yuva Puraskar in 2011 to encourage young writers writing in Indian languages and who are below the age of 35.

Since then every year awards have been given to the best book by young Indian authors in the Indian languages recognized by the Akademi, viz., Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, English, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Santali, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

These awards are presented at a prestigious ceremony and comprise an amount of Rs. 50,000/-, a plaque and a citation.

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2. In NFHS report card, the good, the sober, the future

Its fifth edition has encouraging news but addressing discriminatory social norms must remain top priority

The health system in India has been facing unprecedented stress during the COVID-19 pandemic which includes the looming Omicron threat now on the horizon. Against this backdrop, the recently released fifth edition of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5 brings some positive news. NFHS-5, which presents a bird’s eye view of the state of the nation’s health and related development indicators, looks encouraging on several fronts: population growth is stabilising, family planning services have improved, and health systems are delivering better.

However, it also highlights the need for further improvement to address gender-based violence and harmful practices against women and girls, such as child marriage and gender-biased sex selection. These have been exacerbated by discriminatory social norms and practices hindering the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030 Agenda and India’s development goals.

Population is stabilising

The good news is that India’s population growth appears to be stabilising. The Total Fertility Rate — the average number of children born per woman — has declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level. A total of 31 States and Union Territories (constituting 69.7% of the country’s population) have achieved fertility rates below the replacement level of 2.1.

The main reasons for decline in fertility include: Increase in adoption of modern family planning methods (from 47.8% in 2015-16 to 56.5% in 2019-21) and a reduction in unmet need for family planning by 4% points over the same period. This indicates significant improvements in access to family planning related information and services.

Increased reach of the health system to more non-user couples with information about family planning (from 18% in 2015-16 to 24% in 2019-21). Further, 62% of current users have received information about the side-effects of contraceptives — a crucial indicator of the improved quality of family planning services.

Significant improvements in female literacy, with 41% women having received 10 or more years of schooling (compared to 36% in 2015-16). Girls who study longer have fewer children, and are also more likely to delay marriage and find employment. In other Asian countries too, fertility decline has taken place alongside notable improvements in access to quality education, especially girls’ education.

Improved health delivery

Maternal health services are steadily improving. Antenatal care in the first trimester has increased by 11.4% points (from 2015-16 to 2019-21) to reach 70%; the recommended four antenatal care check-ups have increased by 7% points to reach 58.1% and postnatal care visits have gone up by 15.6% points to reach 78%. Institutional births were accessed by 88.6% of women in 2019-21, marking an increase of 9.8% points from 2015-16. There has also been an increase in institutional deliveries in public health facilities (52.1% to 61.9%), demonstrating an improvement in quality of services.

The survey indicates a worrisome figure of 11% of pregnant women who were still either unreached by a skilled birth attendant or not accessing institutional facilities. Further analysis reveals an institutional delivery rate of under 70% in 49 districts of India. Over two-thirds (69%) of these districts are from five States (Nagaland, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh), indicating the need for an area-specific approach to improving maternal health services. Teenage pregnancy has declined marginally by 1% point, and 7.9% of women in the age group of 15-19 years who were already mothers or pregnant at the time of the survey. This highlights the need to invest in comprehensive sexuality education as a key component of life-skills education for both in school and out-of-school adolescents, and ensuring access to quality sexual and reproductive health services for them. A very small segment of the population is currently accessing the full range of sexual and reproductive health services such as screening tests for cervical cancer (1.9%) and breast examinations (0.9%). These services should be included while expanding the basket of reproductive health services.

Discriminatory social norms

Evidence indicates significant progress where women have the right to bodily autonomy and integrity, and the ability to take decisions about their lives. It is heartening to see that the proportion of women (aged 15-24 years) who use menstrual hygiene products has increased by almost 20% points between 2015-16 and 2019-21 and currently stands at 77.3%. The proportion of women who have their own bank accounts has gone up by 25.6% points over the same time period to reach 78.6%. Around 54% of women have their own mobile phones and about one in three women have used the Internet. This, coupled with the increase in the proportion of women with more than 10 years of schooling, lays the building blocks for women’s empowerment. In the next few years, the combination of mobile technology, banking, education and women’s economic empowerment will be significant drivers to address informal discriminatory norms.

To empower women and ensure gender justice, it is imperative to address harmful practices, such as child marriage and gender-biased sex selection. The prevalence of child marriage has gone down marginally from 26.8% in 2015-16 to 23.3% in 2019-21. Similarly, sex ratio at birth has shown slight improvement (from 919 to 929 over the same time period). One in three women continue to face violence from their spouse. Hence, there is a need to enhance the value of women and girls by working on transforming unequal power relations, structural inequalities and discriminatory norms, attitudes and behaviours.

Promote gender-equal values

Women’s participation in the economy continues to remain low (only 25.6% women engaged in paid work, a meagre increase of 0.8% point). Women still bear a disproportionate burden of unpaid domestic and care work, hindering their ability to access gainful employment. This points to the need for engaging with men and boys, particularly in their formative years, to promote positive masculinities and gender-equal values.

The pace of progress between one NFHS and the next should be accelerated by devising targeted strategies based on specific indicators and regions that are currently lagging. Convergence among multiple stakeholders is critical to bring about the desired change. Together, we must challenge discriminatory social norms that drive gender-based violence and harmful practices, and empower women to exercise agency and autonomy in all spheres of life. Women and girls having agency and bodily autonomy is not only the foundation for a better future; it is a fundamental human right.

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